Sleep is a periodic functional state of the human body , characterized by the disabling of consciousness and a decrease in the ability of the nervous system to respond to external stimuli.
History of research
The founder of the » science of sleep » was Manaseyina MM ( 1843 — 1903 ), a student physiologist IR Tarkhanova that in 1870-ies. On puppies studied the interpretation to the body. Analyzing his results, Manassein came to the conclusion that sleep for the body is more important than food.
Modern ideas about the nature of sleep were formed in the second half of the XX century. with the advent of methods for recording bioelectric activity of the brain ( electroencephalogram , EEG), muscles ( electromyogram , EMG) and eyes ( electrooculogram , EOG). The greatest achievement in this area was the discovery of the so-called paradoxical sleep in the 1950s by N. Claytman, U. Dement ( USA ) and M. Zhouve ( France ).
Physiology of sleep
During sleep, the level of anabolic processes increases and catabolism decreases .
how to get better sleep normally occurs cyclically, approximately every 24 hours . These cycles are called circadian rhythms . They are redefined every day , the most important factor is the level of lighting . The level of concentration of special photosensitive proteins depends on the natural cycle of illumination. The circadian cycle is usually set to the length of the light day . In addition to night-time sleep, in some cultures there is a physiologically determined short-term daytime sleep — siesta .
Immediately before sleep, there is a state of drowsiness, a decrease in the activity of the brain , which is characterized by:
- lower level of consciousness ;
- yawn ;
- lower sensitivity sensory systems ;
- reduction of heart rate ;
- reduction in secretory activity of glands ( salivary → dryness of mucous cavity, lacrimal → burning eyes , eyelids sticking together).
Professor Richard R. Budzin of the Sleep Research Laboratory at the University of Arizona has been studying sleep disorders for many years and recommends a quick-sleep technique based on six steps. In the annual report on clinical psychology, he described various psychological approaches that were used to treat insomnia (Bootzin, Epstein, 2011). Such treatment was earlier called treatment by stimulant control (Morin et al, 2006). Tips include: going to bed only when you want to sleep, use bed only for sleep and sex, do not lie in bed for more than 10 minutes if you do not go to sleep — make sure that the bed is associated only with a quick fall asleep, wake up in the morning with an alarm clock in one and the same time, do not sleep in the afternoon