LED lamps or LED lamps — lighting products for consumer, industrial and street lighting, where the light source is LED . LED bulb is a set of LEDs and power circuits for converting network energy to a constant current of low voltage.
LEDs have an adverse effect on the high temperature, which is why LED bulbs tend to have thermal dissipation elements such as radiators and cooling ribs. The term of their service and the electric efficiency (related to energy-saving lamps ) are better than conventional bulbs and most fluorescent lamps . To simplify the replacement of incandescent lamps on the LED, the latter constructively perform with standard bases : E14 (Mignon), E27, E40 and others. It is projected that the market for LED lamps will increase by more than twelve times during the next decade, from $ 2 billion in early 2014 to $ 25 billion in 2023.
Unlike most fluorescent lamps (such as tubes or compact ), LEDs gain full brightness without the need for time to warm up; In addition, the lifetime of fluorescent lamps is reduced by frequent switching on and off as they have tungsten filament yarns . Such defects do not have LED bulbs, but their initial cost is usually much higher. Most LED lamps do not emit light in all directions, but lamps that propagate light on all sides (360 °) are becoming more widespread.
The LED lamp is a separate and independent device . His body is often individual for
structure and specially designed for various LED lighting sources . The large number of LEDs and their small size allows them to be placed in different places , collected in the panel, used for illumination of displays , TVs , etc.
General lighting requires white light . LEDs emit light in a very narrow range of wavelengths , that is, with the color characteristics of the energy of the semiconductor material used to make LEDs. For the emission of white light from an LED lamp, it is necessary to mix the radiation from red , green and blue LEDs or use a luminophor to convert part of the light into other colors.
Since the short-wave light can be converted into a long-wavelength phosphor, it’s enough to use only a blue LED, and other colors can be emitted by luminescence .
One of the methods, RGB (red, green, inlue), is the use of several LEDs matrices, each of which emits different wavelengths in the immediate vicinity to create a common white color .
Significant difference from other light sources is that the LED radiation is more directed , that is, it looks like a narrow beam . LED lamps are used for general lighting and special purpose . Where light is needed in the same color, it is very convenient to use LEDs, because they do not need light filters that absorb some of the light energy.
LED bulbs have a longer service life (up to 50,000 hours) and a higher efficiency ( light output 100 l / watt) than most other known lamps (with a bulb of 12 L / W) if used at the proper temperature . LED sources, small in size, which gives flexibility in the design of lighting fixtures and good control over the distribution of light with small reflectors or lenses . Due to the small size of the LEDs, the spatial distribution of light is controlledLED lamps is extremely flexible. LEDs using the principle of color mixing can radiate a wide color range by changing the ratio of light produced in each of the main colors. It allows for their complete mixing, in lamps with LEDs of different colors. Some modern LED bulbs can be used with dimmers (regulators of light), as well as with obsolete incandescent lamps, or halogen lamps . LEDs are used in bicycle and car headlights, flashlights , garden lights , in medicine , festive illuminations, everyday life, production, and more.
The advantages of these lamps are also the complete lack of ultraviolet radiation that is useful for insects that do not enjoy these rays .
LED lamps do not contain harmful substances (mercury , lead , etc.) and are disposed of as household waste, which also extends the limits of their use. Manufacturers of LED lamps, offer a guarantee period of their work up to 3 years.
Fit the operating temperature of the environment is not specified, but the experience of using it is known that they can work from -40º to + 50ºS.